Check out our original post and comments here.
|Click to enlarge|
- Normal ( 40 deg)
- PR - Normal (~140ms)
- QRS - Normal (80ms)
- QT - 400ms (QTc Bazette ~ 450 ms)
- Up-sloping ST Elevation V1-4 (1mm)
- Subtle ST Depression Lead II
- Voltage Criteria LVH
- Q waves Leads II, III, aVF, V4-V6
- Biphasic T waves V1-4
- Positive to negative deflection
- T Inversion Lead III
- Notched P wave Leads II, III
- Given clinical history of chest pain and T wave morphology ECG features suggestive of Wellens' Syndrome (type 2)
Wellens' Syndrome represents critcal LAD disease with a mean time to infarction of ~8 days.
ECG features of Wellens' are:
- Type 1 Pattern - deep symmetrically inverted T waves in leads V2 & V3
- Type 2 Pattern - positive to negative biphasic T waves in leads V2 & V3
- No pathological precordial q waves and no loss of R wave progression
- Patient with history of chest pain
- Typical Wellens' ECG features usually occur on the painfree ECG
- T wave changes may extend into the lateral precordial leads.
- Patients may have normal biomarkers.
- Exercise stress testing may precipitate acute infarction and should be avoided
Whilst many Emergency Physicians and Cardiologists recognise the name Wellens his contribution and association with cardiology has been far more extensive than the clinical entity highlighted in this post.
Wellens is one of the founders and pioneers of cardiac electrophysiology and I would encourage our readers to seek inspiration from his biography.
What Happened Next ?
The patient gave a history strongly suggestive of cardiac chest pain and was discussed with the cardiology team. Following initial treatment with aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin the patient was transferred to another facility for ongoing management. His initial troponin I result was elevated at 2.3 mcg/L [normal <0.05] and the patient underwent angiography & PCI that day.
His angiography showed:
- LAD - Critical proximal stenosis --> stented
- LCx - moderated mild disease
- RCA - moderate proximal disease
- LV - global hypokinesia
Wellens' On The Web
In the interest of not re-inventing the wheel here are some great web resources on Wellens' Syndrome
- Life in the Fast Lane ECG Library Wellens' Syndrome
- EKG Press by Ken Grauer Wellens' Syndrome
- Dr Smith's ECG Blog Classic Evolution of Wellens' T waves over 26 hours
- Amal Mattu's Emergency ECG Video of the Week Can't Miss Cases of Wellens' Syndrome
- ALiEM Wellen's Syndrome
- EMS 12-Lead Chest Pain in a 62 yr old man
References / Further Reading
- Chan TC, Brady WJ, Harrigan RA, Ornato JP, Rosen P. ECG in Emergency Medicine and Acute Care. Elsevier Mosby 2005.